In many ways, Gallifrey is very different from Earth, as is often the case with alien planets. From regeneration to time travel, there are many aspects of the Time Lord lifestyle that we can not exactly relate to. However, there is one thing we have, or rather, had, in common with the peoples of Gallifrey.
During the time of the Pythia, a prophetic and precognitive ruler, the tribes of Gallifrey shared a religion. They believed in three gods: Life, Pain, and Death. Sometimes, these gods would choose certain Time Lords to be their champions, the current ones being the Doctor (champion of Life and Pain), and the Master (champion of Death). This religion was wiped out when Rassilon banished the Pythia to Karn, leading to the formation of the Sisterhood of Karn.
Another, more cult-like group, also originated on Gallifrey, called the Faction Paradox. They were rather disliked, as they stood for practically everything the Time Lords were against. This group did not remain on Gallifrey for very long, but found their own homeworld from which they continued to mess with time. As you can imagine, this did not please the Time Lords at all, who wiped out the Paradox civilization, leaving few survivors.
Considering the amount of success these two religions had, it seems pretty clear to me why Gallifrey has a much more scientifically-based culture. But I wonder, was the Doctor's home planet better off then, living with prophecies and gods, or now, with strict rules, almost believing themselves to be gods?
[Sources: Tardis Wikia, Wikipedia]